This article was published in the June 16, 1995, issue of the Christian Science Monitor, in a slightly abbreviated form.By Robert A. Senser
A poster on the wall of my home office haunts me. It displays a large color photograph of a dark-skinned Asian boy, about eight years old, kneeling on his bare knees and looking out from behind an iron gate. His hands are gripping its bars. His forlorn black eyes stare at me, pleading. Through his half-open lips, he is making an appeal that I cannot hear.
He wants to be free to go home. I know that not from the wordless poster but from the testimony of a friend of mine, a Bangladeshi woman who took the picture. One afternoon, while walking through an industrial area of the capital city, Dhaka, my friend, Rosaline Costa, a staff member of the Catholic Commission for Justice and Peace, caught sight of a little boy peering out from behind the locked gate of a garment factory. Kneeling there in ragged clothes, apparently on the verge of tears, he was asking to go home. Instead, the nearby security guard ordered the boy to return to his workplace. Costa snapped the lad's picture when he lingered a few moments before rising and walking back into the factory.
I had the boy's photo enlarged and mounted several years ago (see illustration above). By now I feel close enough to him to call him Ali, though we have never met.
It is not a poster that inspires cheer. Ali kneels there as a troubling reminder of a reality all too easy to ignore. Throughout the developing world, and especially in Asia, many millions of little boys and girls are working for people like me. They are busy from morning till late at night, often seven days a week, making clothes, shoes, socks, locks, dolls, toys, soccer balls, and countless other products for us.
The global economy should offer little children an escape from lives of forced labor. Instead, it is drawing more and more of them into various types of servitude. The trend is a "human tragedy," says a recent U.S. Labor Department report titled "By the Sweat and Toil of Children: the Use of Child Labor in American Imports." The report* lists 19 countries across the world with industries involved in this tragedy--eight in Asia (Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, and Thailand), six in Africa (Egypt, the Ivory Coast, Lesotho, Morocco, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe), four in Latin America (Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, and Mexico), and one in Europe (Portugal).
Like slavery in former times, today's system of forced labor by the young has articulate defenders of the indefensible. "They need the work," a Bangladeshi manager told me. It is a rationale repeated in many circles, even by some economists. They claim that there is no alternative for boys and girls like Ali because they are poor, malnourished, and illiterate. No matter that, even after years on the job, they usually remain poor, malnourished, and illiterate, and that their work leads to the unemployment of adults, including their older sisters and brothers. Still, the argument that poor children "need the work" has a powerful appeal. But it also has highly dangerous implications. Every continent, even North America, has many millions of poor families with young children who are not gainfully employed. These girls and boys form huge pools of labor that could be tapped to do unskilled and semi-skilled work now performed by adults. In permissive environments, pre-teen recruits would need strong disciplining to acquire the necessary work habits, but experience in Bangladesh and India shows that the young can perform many productive tasks, and that it is possible to overcome short attention spans and to redirect the child's desire to have fun.
So the supply of potential workers is there. So is the market. In the present competitive international economy, both businesses and consumers are seeking cheaper and cheaper sources of goods, no matter who makes them. The dynamics of this trend are sweeping much of Asia, and the logic that underpins it can thrust millions more of children elsewhere into the global labor force, doing work now performed by their elders.
The scenario sounds grim, even exaggerated. But the process is simply the law of supply and demand in action globally. One tragic consequence of holding that economic principle sacred is to squelch proposals for international rules to prohibit trade in goods made by children like Ali. The U.S. government now ignores that "law" in many ways, for example, by enforcing bans on trade in goods such as elephant tusks and pirated Hollywood films. It should do likewise for goods made by children. ##
*This Labor Department report, as well as a later one on child labor
in agriculture, is available on the Internet via the World
Copyright 1996 Robert A. Senser
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